Acceptance Testing8212;Option A1 of Test Method D2256 is considered satisfactory for acceptance testing of commercial shipments because the test method has been used extensively in the trade for acceptance testing. However, this statement is not applicable to knot and loop breaking force tests, tests on wet specimens, tests on oven-dried specimens, or tests on specimens exposed to low or high temperatures and should be used with caution for acceptance testing because factual information on between-laboratory precision and bias is not available.
If there are differences of practical significance between reported test results for two laboratories (or more), comparative tests should be performed to determine if there is a statistical bias between them, using competent statistical assistance. As a minimum, use the samples for such a comparative tests that are as homogeneous as possible, drawn from the same lot of material as the samples that resulted in disparate results during initial testing and randomly assigned in equal numbers to each laboratory. The test results from the laboratories involved should be compared using a statistical test for unpaired data, a probability level chosen prior to the testing series. If a bias is found, either its cause must be found and corrected, or future test results for that material must be adjusted in consideration of the known bias.
Fundamental Properties8212;The breaking tenacity, calculated from the breaking force and the linear density, and the elongation are fundamental properties that are widely used to establish limitations on yarn processing or conversion and on their end-use applications. Initial modulus is a measure of the resistance of the yarn to extension at forces below the yield point. The chord modulus is used to estimate the resistance to imposed strain. The breaking toughness is a measure of the work necessary to break the yarn.
Comparison to Skein Testing8212;The single-strand method gives a more accurate measure of breaking force present in the material than does the skein method and uses less material. The skein-breaking force is always lower than the sum of the breaking forces of the same number of ends broken individually.
Applicability8212;Most yarns can be tested by this test method. Some modification of clamping techniques may be necessary for a given yarn depending upon its structure and composition. To prevent slippage in the clamps or damage as a result of being gripped in the clamps, special clamping adaptations may be necessary with high modulus yarns made from fibers such as glass or extended chain polyolefin. Specimen clamping may be modified as required at the discretion of the individual laboratory providing a representative force-elongation curve is obtained. In any event, the procedure described in this test method for obtaining tensile properties must be maintained.
Breaking Strength8212;The breaking strength of a yarn influences the breaking strength of fabrics made from the yarn, although the breaking strength of a fabric also depends on its construction and may be affected by manufacturing operations.
Because breaking strength for any fiber-type is approximately proportional to linear density, strands of different sizes can be compared by converting the observed breaking strength to breaking tenacity (centinewtons per tex, grams-force per tex, or grams-force per denier).
Elongation8212;The elongation of a yarn has an influence on the manufacturing process and the products made. It provides an indication of the likely stretch behavior of garment areas such ............